There’s that canon of (mostly Greek-originated) literary terms such as anacoluthon, cataphora, enjambment, hysteron proteron, etc. They cover all manner of sentential structures, syntactic and semantic. They provide classy names for puns and exaggerations and rhetorical devices.
But there doesn’t seem to be a name for one which nails down that mixture of archaism and modernism (especially slang) in such expressions as “That sky that late o’er us hath lowered, beginneth now to piss down on us” – unless somebody knows? It’s got to be more than just anachronism, it’s not really about the temporality of the things in the utterance.